The Prophet (as) spent thirteen years after his mission in Mecca calling for worshipping Almighty Allah and facing the challenges of the infidels. He decided in this year to migrate to Medina. The Muslims who were in Mecca also migrated to Medina after most Muslims preceded them to there.
The question that arises here is why the Prophet decided to migrate to Medina? and what are the reasons and motives behind this migration?! Certainly this migration was not only as a reaction to the persecution and harm of Quraish, or to get rid of torture, oppression and murder, which were exposed to by the infidels and Quraish, but also an action planned and carried out by the Prophet (as) as a result of a study of the future of Islam, and as a result his will and conviction to do so.
The reasons and motives behind this migration can be summarized to more than one reason:
The first: Mecca was no longer a viable place for Islamic Daawa (call to Islam), the prophet have got there the most that can be obtained during the thirteen years. Some people embraced Islam, others kept on their polytheism leaving no opportunity or hope for the prophet there to work on new groups that might emerge at least in the near future, that is because of polytheists who had put barriers and obstacles preventing progress of Islam in their city. Thus, there was no longer justification for Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) to stay in it, yet staying would be a betrayal of Islam, and contribution to its elimination, especially after Quraish mobilized all their efforts to confront Islam. So, the Prophet migrated to Medina, because he felt that Medina can be a solid strong hub for Islamic Daawa, especially after the people there embraced Islam and pledged allegiance to the prophet.
MeccaThe second: As we know, Islam is not just a matter of worship, fasting, prayer, pilgrimage, etc., it is a comprehensive religion and system that addresses in its provisions and teachings all life’s problems and difficulties at all social, moral, economic, political levels. It calls, in addition to the doctrine of Tawhid and building of spirit, for building a humane political society where provisions and legislation of Allah are applied in the behavior, transactions, ethics, politics and every field. The Prophet (pbuh) was sent to all of creation, inviting them to Islam and the application of its legislation and rulings. The experience of the Prophet in Mecca after thirteen years, and all the challenges that he faced make him unable to build a Muslim community as he desires, which is capable of reigning and applying the Islamic law, as a social and political system. For this reason, it was necessary for the Prophet to a zone where he can build such a society and state.
The third is the continuation of infidels’ pressure by all means to force Muslims to retreat from their religion and faith, which we’ve talked about in previous articles. And if he’d imposed on them to continue facing these pressures and obstacles without hope or any given solution despair would’ve prevailed and they won’t be able to continue with these pressures.
Especially that the Prophet (pbuh) was not able to provide them with protection from Quraish and others, it was necessary to find a suitable solution for those suffering and oppressed, so that they feel safe. Immigration to Medina was at the time the solution. Therefore, we find that the Prophet (pbuh) when he ordered Muslims to immigrate he told them: “The Almighty Allah had made brothers and home for you to be secured,” a home that they can live in with tranquility and stability away from the persecution of Quraish against them and their families.
In summary, the Prophet (pbuh) and Muslims with him had to get out of Mecca to a place away from pressure and persecution where they’d have the freedom to worship and practice their religious rites freely as well as the freedom (for the Prophet) of planning for the construction of Islamic society and state. Migration to Medina was for all of these goals.