Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbors and securing the return of the Golan Heights, have been the primary goals of the Syrian Arab Republic’s foreign policy. At many points in its history, Syria has seen virulent tension with its geographically cultural neighbors, such as Turkey, Israel, Iraq, and Lebanon. Syria enjoyed an improvement in relations with several of the states in its region in the 21st century, prior to the Arab Spring and the Syrian Civil War.
Since the ongoing civil war, the Syrian Arab Republic’s government has been increasingly isolated from the countries in the region, and the wider international community. Diplomatic relations were severed with several countries including: Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Canada, France, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Japan and Qatar. Syria was suspended from the Arab League in 2011 and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in 2012. Syria continues to foster good relations with its traditional allies, Iran and Russia.
Other countries that presently maintain good relations with Syria include China, North Korea, Vietnam Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Guyana, India, South Africa, Tanzania, Pakistan, Armenia, Belarus, South Ossetia, Indonesia, From among the Arab League states, Syria continues to have good relations with Iraq, Egypt (after 3 July 2013), Algeria, Oman, Sudan, and Palestine. Syria does not maintain diplomatic relations with Israel, but has diplomatic relations with Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
In December 2018, after American president Donald Trump announced the partial withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria, some countries initiated reopening of their diplomatic relations with Syria. Following the visit of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, the Arab League initiated the process of readmission of the Syrian Arab Republic to the organization, while the United Arab Emirates reopened their embassy in Syria on 27 December, and Bahrain and Italy announced their intentions to reopen their embassies.